Genetic Engineering, Food, and Farming

Genetic Engineering (GE), also called Genetic Modification (GM), is the direct manipulation of an organism's genome using biotechnology. It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms. GE is widely used in scientific research, and is used to produce medications as well as genetically modified crops used in agriculture.

Genetic Engineering, Food, and Farming

Best Food Facts
Consumers with a passion for food bringing you objective, fact-based information about food. Our goal is to load your plate with a balanced diet of data so that you can make informed choices for yourself and your family — at home, at the grocery store, at your favorite restaurant — and feel confident in your decisions based on an understanding of all sides of the smorgasbord of food issues.

"Bringing light in the discussion about GMOs?" - Alexander J. Stein
Economist interested in agriculture, food, nutrition, health, technology, sustainability, economic development & poverty alleviation worldwide. This is a personal account; posts are not necessarily endorsements. More at

The Center for Food Integrity
Consumers have questions about food — where it comes from, who's producing it and how. Their healthy curiosity and skepticism is why we exist. It's not about supporting a certain outcome. We don't lobby or advocate on behalf of any brand or company or food production method. We simply want to make sure that consumers — in an environment where they are bombarded with contradictions — have the balanced information they need about food to make informed choices that are right for them and their families.

The Center for Food Integrity is a not-for-profit organization whose members and project partners represent the diversity of today's food system — from farmers, ranchers and food companies to universities, non-governmental organizations, restaurants, retailers and food processors.

The Food Dialogues
The U.S. Farmers & Ranchers Alliance (USFRA) consists of more than 100 farmer and rancher led organizations and agricultural partners representing virtually all aspects of agriculture, working to engage in dialogue with consumers who have questions about how today's food is grown and raised. USFRA is committed to continuous improvement and supporting U.S. farmers and ranchers efforts to increase confidence and trust in today's agriculture.

Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects (2016) - Committee on Genetically Engineered Crops: Past Experience and Future Prospects, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies
Genetically engineered (GE) crops were first introduced commercially in the 1990s. After two decades of production, some groups and individuals remain critical of the technology based on their concerns about possible adverse effects on human health, the environment, and ethical considerations. At the same time, others are concerned that the technology is not reaching its potential to improve human health and the environment because of stringent regulations and reduced public funding to develop products offering more benefits to society. While the debate about these and other questions related to the genetic engineering techniques of the first 20 years goes on, emerging genetic-engineering technologies are adding new complexities to the conversation.

Genetically Modified (GM) Plants: Questions and Answers - The Royal Society
What are genetically modified (GM) plants? Is genetic modification safe? Where are GM crops grown and eaten?

Food security is one of this century's key global challenges, as noted in our earlier report Reaping the Benefits, and due to the scale of the challenge, we should really think carefully before we rule out any technology that might help deal with the problem. The questions and answers given here are intended to provide a resource to those who are interested in what GM is, how it is used and potential future uses.

GMO Answers*
Genetically modified organisms — GMOs — are a major topic of discussion today. Across our society, media and the Internet, a growing number of people have shared a wide range of questions and emotions on the topic — ranging from excitement and optimism to skepticism and even fear. GMO Answers was created to do a better job answering your questions — no matter what they are — about GMOs. The biotech industry stands 100 percent behind the health and safety of the GM crops on the market today, but we acknowledge that we haven't done the best job communicating about them — what they are, how they are made, what the safety data says. This website is the beginning of a new conversation among everyone who cares about how our food is grown.

GMO Building Blocks
GMO Building Blocks is a joint project of Food and Farm Discussion Lab and The goal is to create a set of resources for expanding the understanding of genetic engineering and biotech crops, medicines and other uses of the technology. It is a volunteer run project with no outside funding.
Kevin Folta is a professor in and chairman of the Horticultural Sciences Department at the University of Florida, Gainesville. He got his Ph.D. in Molecular Biology from University of Illinois at Chicago in 1998, and he has worked at University of Wisconsin before settling in at University of Florida. Dr. Folta researches the functional genomics of small fruit crops, the plant transformation, the genetic basis of flavors, and studies at photomorphogenesis and flowering. He has also written many publications and edited books, most recently was the 2011 Genetics, Genomics, and Breeding of Berries. Dr. Folta received the NSF CAREER Award, an HHMI Mentoring Award and was recognized as "University of Florida Foundation Research Professor" in 2010.

Weed Control Freaks
Wyoming weed science in (almost) real time. This site covers topics such as: Agroecology, crops, Early Detection Rapid Response, GMO, Herbicide Resistance, Herbicides, Range & Pasture, Research, Sustainable Agriculture, Weather, and more.

"Scientific Literature influencing the Scientific Consensus on GMOs" - Nodes of Science, by Knigel Holmes
What is some of the Scientific Literature that has Formed the Scientific Consensus on GMOs?

* Industry-sponsored site. While these sites report information that is consistent with the scientific consensus and published evidence, it is important to note their sponsorship for full transparency.